Continuous production and drainage of tears is important to the eye's health. Tears keep the eye moist, help wounds heal, and protect against eye infection.
In people with dry eye
- The eye produces fewer or less quality tears
- Or the tears evaporate fast thus unable to keep its surface lubricated and comfortable.
Constituents of Tear film
The tear film consists of three layers—
- an outer, oily (lipid) layer that keeps tears from evaporating too quickly and helps tears remain on the eye;
- a middle (aqueous) layer that nourishes the cornea and conjunctiva;
- and a bottom (mucin) layer that helps to spread the aqueous layer across the eye to ensure that the eye remains wet. As we age, the eyes usually produce fewer tears. Also, in some cases, the lipid and mucin layers produced by the eye are of such poor quality that tears cannot remain in the eye long enough to keep the eye sufficiently lubricated.
- sandy feeling as if something is in the eye
- stinging or burning of the eye
- episodes of excess tearing that follow periods of very dry sensation
- a stringy discharge from the eye; and pain and redness of the eye.
- Sometimes people with dry eye experience heaviness of the eyelids or blurred, changing, or decreased vision, although loss of vision is uncommon.
Dry eye is more common in women, especially after menopause. Surprisingly, some people with dry eye may have tears that run down their cheeks. This is because the eye may be producing less of the lipid and mucin layers of the tear film, which help keep tears in the eye. When this happens, tears do not stay in the eye long enough to thoroughly moisten it.
- Environmental Stresses
-Low Humidity: Air Conditioners, Central Heating
- Computer Vision Syndrome
- Contact Lens Wear
- Various Disease States
- Ocular Surgery
(e.g. PC use)
(e.g air Conditioning, forced heat)
(e.g exhaust, smoke)
People with connective tissue diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, can also develop dry eye. It is important to note that dry eye is sometimes a symptom of Sjögren's syndrome, a disease that attacks the body's lubricating glands, such as the tear and salivary glands. A complete physical examination may diagnose any underlying diseases.
- Artificial tears, which lubricate the eye, are the principal treatment for dry eye.
- Sterile ointments are sometimes used at night to help prevent the eye from drying.
- Disease modifying , immunomodulating eye drops,Secretogogues.
- Using humidifiers, wearing wrap-around glasses when outside, and avoiding outside windy and dry conditions may bring relief.
- For people with severe cases of dry eye, temporary or permanent closure of the tear drain (small openings at the inner corner of the eyelids where tears drain from the eye) may be helpful.